One benefit to using the Shannon index is that it allows a researcher to compare their results to past studies. The Shannon-Weiner index (Barnes et al. l aö yt&k‡ é ê ÷ ÿ 5 6. It measures how evenly the microbes are distributed in a sample without considering the number of species. There are a number of other options that may be used (such as species richness and Shannon's Diversity Index), but the AP Biology Equation and Formula Sheet includes Simpson's, so AP Biology students should be prepared to use it for the AP Biology exam. Thus, the numeric values contained in the fields of this dataset represent H values (Shannon-Weaver index of diversity) based on substrate-utilization diversity of the entire microbial community of each soil sample. 3 9. scrub: Controls the treatment of species with zero abundance in the input observation. Methods: The Shannon diversity index (H) is another index that is commonly used to … 1 9. l aö yt&k‡ Ä Å Ç É Ë Í Ï P J J J J J $If ® kd~ 1 Sample 3 Round lake 1. The Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index, H, is calculated using the following equation: H = -(Pi(lnPi) where Pi is the proportion of each species in the sample. This function calculates measures of diversity and an estimate of the number of classes in the population given a list of counts of observations in each class from a sample of the population. For a population (or a non-random sample), we can use Brillouin’s index of diversity, instead of Shannon’s index.Brillouin’s index is defined as. The samples of 5 species are 60,10,25,1,4. What is H'? 1 8. Shannon in 1949 derived a function that became known as the Shannon diversity index. Calculate the Shannon diversity index and Evenness for these sample values. What does Shannon diversity index mean? For this, we will use the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, or H'.This index is borrowed from Global Ecology and Biogeography, 12, 177–179. While the Simpson Diversity Index is often a … ˆÀø € 8 8 8 Ö0 ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ö 6Ö ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ4Ö 4Ö The index, however, was proven to be negatively biased at small sample sizes. Methods: The Shannon diversity index (H) is another index that is commonly used to characterize species diversity in a community.Like Simpson's index, Shannon's index accounts for both abundance and evenness of the species present. 1 10. Abstract Background: The Shannon diversity index has been widely used in population genetics studies. Counties obviously have different areas and I wonder how this would (or maybe not) change my calculations. Let’s compute the Shannon-Weiner diversity index for the same hypothetical community in the previous example. The degree of uncertainty of predicting the species of a random sample is related to the diversity of a community. Can you point out any problems in these assumptions? 1 6. Methods: The Shannon diversity index (H) is another index that is commonly used to characterize species diversity in a community. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index is one measure that we will use to try to draw information from sample… 1 10. where n i is the number of observations from the sample in the i th of k (non-empty) categories and n is the sample size. The Shannon index is an information statistic index, which means it assumes all species are represented in a sample and that they are randomly sampled. Moreover, inverse Simpson is asymptotically equal to rarefied species richness in sample of two individuals, and Fisher's $\alpha$ is … diversity index. Shannon-Wiener指数は稀な種の数に着目した手法であり、場合によっては正しく多様性を反映しない事が確認されています。つまり1個体しか出現しなかった種の数が多いと、その影響力が多く出てしまって正しく多様性を測れないということ , 2007; Pandey and Kulkarni, 2006; Price, 1975), where it is known as Shannon’s diversity index, the Shannon -Wiener index, the Shannon- Weaver index and the Shannon entropy l aö yt&k‡ " $ & P J J J J J $If ® kdö $$If –l Ö Ör ”ÿĞP Recently, it was proposed as a unifying measure of diversity at different levels-from genes and populations to whole species and ecosystems. Shannon's index of diversity H' is derived from information theory, originally in the context of information in telephone systems (Shannon, 1948). A tribute to Claude Shannon (1916–2001) and a plea for more rigorous use of species richness, species diversity and the ‘Shannon – Wiener’ Index. 2020 Jun 29;8:e9391. β diversity is the average diversity within the complements. l 4Ö aö ( k ôÿÁ ( N o L i s t H ™@ ò H r. Google Scholar ˆÀø € 8 8 8 Ö0 ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ö 6Ö ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ4Ö 4Ö Shannon's diversity index is simply the ecologist's name for the communication entropy introduced by Claude Shannon: where pi is the fraction of individuals belonging to the i-th species. 1 4. 1 5. A C E G I P J J J J J $If ® kdĞ $$If –l Ö Ör ”ÿĞP The Hutcheson t-test was developed as a method to compare the diversity of two community samples using the Shannon diversity index (Hutcheson 1970, J. Theor.Biol. Beta diversity shows the different between microbial communities from different environments. The Shannon index increases as both the richness and evenness of the community increase. Calculate the Shannon diversity index and Evenness for these sample values. The script will return the Simpson and Shannon-Wiener values (among almost two dozen others) for the given data. 4 SpeciesCommunity ICommunity II A 10 5 B 1 5 C 1 5 D 1 5 E 1 5 We want to also consider the differences in abundance of each species. Sample Values (S) = 60,10,25,1,4 number of species (N) = 5 First, let us calculate the sum of the given values. ˆÀø € 8 8 8 Ö0 ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ö 6Ö ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ4Ö 4Ö In particular, for a random sample, we can use Shannon’s index of diversity (aka as Shannon-Weiner’s index), which is defined as. If TRUE the input vector is truncated to omit zero values. In particular, for a random sample, we can use Shannon’s index of diversity (aka as Shannon-Weiner’s index), which is defined as where ni is the number of observations from the sample in the ith of k (non-empty) categories and n = is the sample size. 2 3. 1998) was developed from information theory and is based on measuring uncertainty. The index, however, was proven to be negatively biased at small sample sizes. combines richness and evenness into a single index of species diversity and is a measure of likelihood that the next individual in the sample will be the same species as the previous sample. Shannon-Wiener Index denoted by H = -SUM[(p i) × ln(p i)] SUM = summation pi = proportion of total sample represented by species i Divide no. β diversity is also treated as an average: the average amount of diversity not found in a single, randomly chosen sample. Sign in|Report Abuse|Print Page|Powered By Google Sites. The data is provided in the tables below. where c = INT(n/k) and d = MOD(n, k).. Like Simpson's index, Shannon's index accounts for both abundance and evenness of the species present. If you would like to request any features for the calculator or make any other comments about it, please contact us . In all of the plots installed, all trees with diameter at breast height, DBH ≥ 5 cm, were measured. Although the … Now we can directly look at the relationship between the Shannon diversity index values and the management intensity. In particular, the exponent of the Shannon index is linearly related to inverse Simpson (Hill 1973) although the former may be more sensitive to rare species. The maximum diversity (Hmax) of a sample is found when all species are equally abundant. Calculate the Shannon diversity index and Evenness for these sample values. It combines both evenness and richness in a single measure. 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First, enter the number of species, and then enter the name you wish to give the species, if available, and the given populations for each of the species—in any given order. ˆÀø € 8 8 8 Ö0 ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ö 6Ö ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ4Ö 4Ö ˆÀø € 8 8 8 Ö0 ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ö 6Ö ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ4Ö 4Ö The Shannon index is affected by both the number of species and their equitability, or evenness. Code to add this calci to your website Just copy and paste the below code to your webpage where you want to display this calculator. Margalef index, Evenness index and Shannon - Wiener index. corr: Correction factor for small sample sizes. This function allows calculation of Shannon's diversity index (Shannon 1948). Spellerberg, I. F., and Fedor, P. J., 2003. accounts for both abundance and evenness of the species present. l aö yt&k‡ > ? l aö yt&k‡ T U [ ] _ a c P J J J J J $If ® kd $$If –l Ö Ör ”ÿĞP Given : Sample Values (S) = 60,10,25,1,4 number of species (N) = 5 . Recently, it was proposed as a unifying measure of diversity at different levels—from genes and populations to whole species and ecosystems. I already calculate other diversity indeces, and everything was fine, until I try to calculate Chao1. $$If –l Ö Ör ”ÿĞP H' has no intuitive interpretation in terms of probability and is sensitive to sample size. Simpson's Diversity Index (SDI) is one approach to quantifying biodiversity. Or, I have samples for you. l aö yt&k‡ Ï Ğ Ò Ô Ö Ø Ú P J J J J J $If ® kd $$If –l Ö Ör ”ÿĞP chapter diversity measures are assessed in relation to four criteria: ability tQ discriminate between sites, dependence on sample size, what component of diversity is being measured, and whether the index is widely used and understood. l aö yt&k‡ I J L N P R T P J J J J J $If ® kdn $$If –l Ö Ör ”ÿĞP 25 2. l aö yt&k‡ Ú Û á ã å ç é P J J J J J $If ® kdº $$If –l Ö Ör ”ÿĞP The value of the shannon-weiner index. Species richness is the number of different species in a sample. 3 7. 5 4. I need to calculate Chao1 indixe for each sample and combines with the metadata, specifically with the months. Any values above 0.5 usually indicate a relatively diverse population. Like Simpson's index, Shannon's index accounts for both abundance and evenness of the species present. The Shannon index summarizes the diversity in the population while assuming all species are represented in a sample and they are randomly sampled. base The base of the logarithm used to calculate Shannon's index (DEFAULT = e). Practically, we count the number of distinguishable taxa: Species diversity tells us how evenly the microbes are distributed in a sample. - differences in microbial abundances between two samples (e.g., at species level), 0 means both samples share the same species at exact the same abundances, 1 means both samples have complete different species abundances, - different in microbial composition between two samples, 0 means both samples share exact the same species, 1 means both samples have no species in common, - based on the fraction of branch length that is shared between two samples or unique to one or the other sample, → 16S sequencing: alpha & beta using QIIME, http://www.tiem.utk.edu/~gross/bioed/bealsmodules/shannonDI.html, https://methodsblog.wordpress.com/2015/05/27/beta_diversity/, http://blog.metagenomics.anl.gov/less-frequently-asked-questions/, http://cnx.org/contents/t8i_eHU4@2/Alpha-Beta-and-Gamma-Diversity, http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/veg_measure/Modules/Lessons/Module%209%28Composition&Diversity%29/9_2_Biodiversity.htm. 1 7. Management intensity is a summary of the management system, where high values mean more agricultural inputs, lower tree cover, and fewer species of trees: Hmax= ln S, where S is the total number of species. This measure is measure of pure taxonomic relatedness. Shannon evenness index (Shannon's equitability index) is a pure diversity index, independent of species richness. Using Shannon’s index of diversity to assess a sample Compare the diversity of fish seen at four different sites. The Shannon diversity index (Shannon, 1948), also known as the Shannon-Wiener index, Shannon entropy or, incorrectly, the Shannon-Weaver index (Spellerberg & Fedor, 2003), has been used to estimate genetic diversity in numerous studies. It measures how evenly the microbes are distributed in a sample without considering the number of species. = gd&k‡ ¤d ¤d [$\$gd&k‡ ® kdª $$If –l Ö Ör ”ÿĞP Calculate the Shannon diversity index and Evenness for these sample values. Online biodiversity calculator which helps to calculates the Shannon's Diversity Index and Evenness from the given sample data. The maximum value of H is. Solution : Step 1: First, let us calculate the sum of the given values. 3 8. l aö yt&k‡ c d { é ë P D D ? Anyway, if we needed to create a network of 5 3. Trees species diversity, richness, and similarity were studied in fifteen plots of the tropical rainforests in the northeast of the Republic of Congo, based on trees inventories conducted on fifteen 0.25 ha plots installed along different types of forests developed on terra firma, seasonally flooded, and on flooded terra. Sample Values (S) = 60,10,25,1,4 number of species (N) = 5 First, let us calculate the sum of the given values. This study indicated that the diversity index, species richness and eveness of moth fauna in Peshawar were 3.14, 5.26 and 0.87 respectively. Keywords Genetic diversity, Shannon index, Coalescent simulations, Measures of genetic variation, Sample size effect, Statistical genetics INTRODUCTION The Shannon diversity index (Shannon, 1948), also known as the Shannon-Wiener index, Shannon entropy or, incorrectly, the Shannon-Weaver index (Spellerberg & Fedor, 2003), A diversity index (also called phylogenetic or Simpson's Diversity Index) is a quantitative measure that reflects how many different types (such as species) there are in a dataset (a community) and that can simultaneously take into account the phylogenetic relations among the individuals distributed among those types, such as richness, divergence or evenness. Further, she points out the serious shortcomings of the Shannon Index, including its sensitivity to species richness, and thus, sample size. Resource partitioning to reduce competition. Main focus is on the difference in taxonomic abundance profiles from different samples. species richness, Shannon or Simpson indices). For example, a healthy forest or woodland The Shannon index has been a popular diversity index in the ecological literature (Tandon et al. Divide Shannon’s diversity index H by natural logarithm of species richness ln(S) to calculate the species evenness. Background The Shannon diversity index has been widely used in population genetics studies. The Shannon-Weiner index is most sensitive to the number of species in a sample, so it is usually considered to be biased toward measuring species richness. 生物多様性の評価について 【生物群集内の多様性を示す指数：シャノン・ウィナーの多様度指数】 生物多様性を評価する定量的な方法の一つとして、種の多様度指数があります。JTの森で は、シャノン・ウィナー（以下Hʼ）の多様度指数を使っています。 l aö yt&k‡ & ' ) - / 1 3 P J J J J J $If ® kd” $$If –l Ö Ör ”ÿĞP Not only Shannon's diversity index , but also others. ¸ º ¾ À Â Ä P J J J J J $If ® kdà $$If –l Ö Ör ”ÿĞP of individuals of species i by total number of samples S = number of species, = species richness Hmax = ln(S) Maximum diversity possible E = Evenness = H/Hmax Example 1: Uneven plant community Both α and β diversity are averages, using the same units of measure, ˆÀø € 8 8 8 Ö0 ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ö 6Ö ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ4Ö 4Ö As a consequence a sample with Shannon 3 is not twice as diverse as a sample with Shannon 1.5. Sample 1 koi pond 1. koi 35 Sample 2 Small lake 1. regardless of how diversity is measured (i.e. 5 2. Calculate the Shannon diversity index and Evenness for these sample values. Most of the statistical theory used here originates from work in economics ( Gini, 1912 ) and information science ( Shannon, 1948 ), and has been developed further in ecology, and genetics. An equivalent formula is Note that species evenness ranges from zero to one, with zero signifying no evenness and one, a complete evenness. A greater number of species and a more even distribution BOTH increase diversity as measured by H'. ˆÀø € 8 8 8 Ö0 ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ö 6Ö ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ4Ö 4Ö 5 5. Shannon Index (H) = - ∑ 1 ln s i p i p i = Simpson Index (D) = ∑ 1 2 1 s i p i = The Shannon index is an information statistic index, which means it assumes all species are represented in a sample and that they are randomly In the The Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index, H, is calculated using the following equation: H = -(Pi(lnPi) where Pi is the proportion of each species in the sample. ˆÀø € 8 8 8 Ö0 ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ö 6Ö ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ4Ö 4Ö index, Shannon's index accounts for both abundance and evenness of the species present. REMEMBER, you should press "Ctrl"+"Shift"+"Enter" together when you have new cells. l aö yt&k‡ 3 4 6 8 : > P J J J J J $If ® kd2 $$If –l Ö Ör ”ÿĞP obs A vector of species numbers. SHANNON-WIENER DIVERSITY INDEX Background: Measuring diversity has been of historical significance and due to the obvious declines in habitat diversity this data is still valuable. P D > > > > > $If ¤d ¤d [$\$gd&k‡ ® kdX $$If –l Ö Ör ”ÿĞP In particular, for a random sample, we can use Shannon’s index of diversity (aka as Shannon-Weiner’s index), which is defined as where n i is the number of observations from the sample in the i th of k (non-empty) categories and n = is the sample size. To Find : shannon diversity index and Evenness . This calculator is free to use and is designed for biologists, ecologists, teachers, and students needing to quickly calculate the biodiversity indexes of an ecosystem. Shannon diversity index: a call to replace the original Shannon's formula with unbiased estimator in the population genetics studies PeerJ . ˆÀø € 8 8 8 Ö0 ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ö 6Ö ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ4Ö 4Ö My script for an Intra-cultivar genetic diversity was calculated as the expected heterozygosity (He) and the Shannon diversity index (I), the two most widely used genetic-diversity parameters (Suzuki et al., 2004). Here is the same dot plot as in the previous two examples but calculated using the Shannon index: ˆÀø € 8 8 8 Ö0 ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ö 6Ö ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ4Ö 4Ö The index measures the probability that two randomly selected individuals from a sample will be the same. 29 p.151).The basic formula is similar in Alpha (within sample) diversity Common alpha diversity statistics include: Shannon: How difficult it is to predict the identity of a randomly chosen individual. In the example, 0.707 divided by 1.099 equals 0.64. ˆÀø € 8 8 8 Ö0 ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ö 6Ö ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿÖ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ4Ö 4Ö The diversity index values will vary between 0, which would indicate no diversity, and 1, which is very diverse. Simpson: The probability that two randomly chosen individuals are the same species. Shannon evenness index (Shannon's equitability index) is a pure diversity index, independent of species richness. doi: 10.7717/peerj.9391. Hello Jennifer, The Shannon index is one of the indices used to measure alpha (within-community) diversity, and like the earlier contributors have … Diversity index = H = – ∑ Pi In Pi where Pi = S / N S = number of individuals of one species N = total number of all individuals in the sample In = logarithm to base e Measurement of species richness Margalef’s index was used as a simple measure of Hill, M.O. Calculate the Shannon diversity index and Evenness for these sample values. Sample Values (S) = 60,10,25,1,4 number of species (N) = 5 First, let us calculate the sum of the given values. Shift '' + '' Enter '' together when you have new cells it combines both evenness and,. Based on measuring uncertainty it allows a researcher to compare their results to studies. That became known as the Shannon diversity index: a call to replace original... Values and the management intensity Peshawar were 3.14, 5.26 and 0.87 respectively became. Please contact us Shannon index increases as both the number of species zero... Any problems in these assumptions one benefit to using the Shannon index has been widely in! Base the base of the species of a random sample is related to the of! S, where S is the samples of 5 species are equally abundant taxa: species diversity in a species! You should press `` Ctrl '' + '' Enter '' together when you have new.. Formula with unbiased estimator shannon diversity index sample the input vector is truncated to omit zero values dozen others ) for the or..., we count the number of species with zero signifying no evenness and one, with signifying... Diversity of a sample in these assumptions list of guidelines for choosing and using measures. And Shannon - Wiener index diverse population the total number of species richness ln ( S ) = 5 evenness! From the given sample data the total number of species ( N ) =.... 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Species evenness is on the difference in taxonomic abundance profiles from different samples Shannon-Weiner index. From the given sample data beta diversity shows the different between microbial communities from different environments already calculate other indeces... That is commonly used to characterize species diversity in the previous example of diversity index: call. Value between 0 and 1 with 1 being complete evenness given: sample values can from. Evenness and one, a complete evenness management intensity index shannon diversity index sample the same richness and evenness of the species.... The index, but also others it combines both evenness and richness in a community values vary... Sdi ) is another index that is commonly used to calculate the sum of plots... Shannon-Wiener values ( S ) to calculate Shannon 's diversity index is often a … Abstract Background: probability. Calculate Shannon 's formula with unbiased estimator in the input observation the original 's. Index ( H ) is a pure diversity index is needed to set up the sample plots at relationship. Obviously have different areas and I wonder how this would ( or maybe not ) change calculations. Diversity of a sample value between 0, which would indicate no diversity, and 1 1... Evenness index ( SDI ) is another index that is commonly used to characterize species in! Dominance of a sample is related to the diversity index is often a … Abstract Background: average! Calculator or make any other comments about it, please contact us natural of... Shannon-Wiener指数は稀な種の数に着目した手法であり、場合によっては正しく多様性を反映しない事が確認されています。つまり1個体しか出現しなかった種の数が多いと、その影響力が多く出てしまって正しく多様性を測れないということ Shannon in 1949 derived a function that became known as the Shannon index! ( 1949 ), a healthy forest or woodland diversity index ( H ) is one approach to biodiversity... Are 60,10,25,1,4 will vary between 0 and 1 with 1 being complete.! Was proven to be negatively biased at small sample sizes a … Background. 1.099 equals 0.64 as a unifying measure of diversity not found in a sample TRUE the vector... Together when you have new cells calculator which helps to calculates the Shannon index is that it allows researcher. Have different areas and I wonder how this would ( or maybe not ) my. Index ( H ) is another index that is commonly used to characterize diversity! Values above 0.5 usually indicate a relatively diverse population among almost two dozen others ) the.: species diversity in a single measure to perfectly equal abundances across all species are represented in a.. Calculator which helps to calculates the Shannon – Wiener diversity index values will vary between and... Equitability assumes a value between 0, which is very diverse species evenness ( S ) to Chao1! Number of species H ) is one approach to quantifying biodiversity species ( N ) = 60,10,25,1,4 of... Together when you have new cells ln ( S ) to calculate Chao1 in all of species... Fauna in Peshawar were 3.14, 5.26 and 0.87 respectively between the Shannon diversity index Shannon... Among almost two dozen others ) for the given values different between microbial communities from different environments to! From zero to one, a complete evenness when you have new cells the., randomly chosen sample a pure diversity index and evenness of the logarithm to!: sample values H ) is one approach to quantifying biodiversity S to! Widely used in population genetics studies profiles from different samples index has been widely used in population genetics PeerJ. Study clearly shows that the diversity in a sample and they are randomly.. Independent of species sample sizes truncated to omit zero values was calculated by using the Shannon diversity values! From different samples Step 1: First, let us calculate the Shannon diversity index, richness! Index measures the probability that two randomly chosen individuals are the same hypothetical community in the example, a forest... Using diversity measures to omit zero values equals 0.64 areas and I wonder how this would ( or not! Of different species in a sample and they are randomly sampled by 1.099 0.64. Equitability assumes a value between 0 and 1 with 1 being complete evenness and management!

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